• It is our inferior cognitive function and it has the maturity of a 3 yr old. We also call it a blind spot.
  • It is unconscious for us in much the same way as our Driver
  • It feels foreign to us – even icky.
  • We have a weird push-pull relationship with that 3 yr old
  • If we set up a situation where we only give our 3 yr old attention when it is misbehaving, we have created a reactionary relationship with it.
  • Naomi Quenk calls it the Grip
  • It can be a bit embarrassing when this part of us takes over.
  • But if we give it the attention it needs, it can become our aspiration.
  • 3 yr olds are untouched by cynicism.
  • There can be a lot of pain and trauma trapped in our inferior function.
  • The Copilot is of the same attitude (Introverted/Extraverted) as the 3 yr old
  • So the Copilot can help manage the issues buried in the 3 yr old
  • Start with the 4 letter code (ESTP, INTJ, etc.)
  • Imagine this code as a sandwich.
  • The First and last letters are the bread and the middle letters are the meat
  • The second letter of the 4 letter code is either an S or N (Sensing or iNtuition)
  • This is how you perceive the world, take in info, and learn.
  • The third letter of the four letter code is either a T or F (Thinking or Feeling)
  • This is how you judge the world, make decisions and evaluate.
  • That is the meat of the sandwich
  • SF = Sensing is your Perceiving function and Feeling is your Judging function
  • Now let’s go the last letter of the 4 letter code. It will be either a P or J (Perceiving or Judging)
  • This is a crucial part of your 4 letter code in determining how your cognitive function stack is organized.
  • This letter tells us which of the two middle letters are being Extraverted and which are being Introverted.
  • If you are a Perceiver, and the last letter of your 4 letter code is a P, then you are extraverting your Perceiving process – your second letter.
  • So, an ISFP will be extraverting the S in their 4 letter code and introverting the F.
  • If you are a Judger (the last letter of your 4 letter code is a J), then you are introverting your Perceiving process – the second letter – and extraverting your Judging process – the third letter.
  • So, an ESFJ would be introverting the S in their 4 letter code and extraverting the F.
  • If you are a Judger and you are extraverting your Judging process, put a little e next to the third letter.
  • So, an ESFJ would look like this: E S Fe J – that tells us that ESFJ’s judge the world with Fe or Extraverted Feeling.
  • If the Judging process is being extraverted, then we automatically introvert our Perceiving process, so put a little i next to the second letter – E Si Fe J
  • That tells us that ESFJs perceive the world thru Si or Introverted Sensing
  • So each of the middle letters of our 4 letter code has a different attitude attached to it.
  • If one is introverted the other needs to be extraverted.
  • Since an ISFP extraverts their perceiving process, it would look like this: I Se Fi P
  • ISFPs take in info with Extraverted Sensing, and they evaluate the info with Introverted Feeling
  • To determine which cognitive function you have a preference for you will look to the first letter of the 4 letter code.
  • If you are an ISFP, you will have a preference for introversion. So, your dominant cognitive function will be introverted.
  • I Se Fi P – Introverted Feeling (Fi) will be the dominant cognitive function of all ISFPs.
  • If you are an ESFJ, you will have a preference for Extraversion. So, your dominant cognitive function will be extraverted.
  • E Si Fe J – Extraverted Feeling (Fe) will be the dominant cognitive function of all ESFJs.
  • If you are drawing out the 4 quadrants of your car model, put the dominant cognitive function in the Driver’s spot.
  • That leaves one more cognitive function. Put it in your Copilot spot.
  • For ISFPs, Their dominant is Introverted Feeling, so their copilot is Extraverted Sensing – I Se Fi P
  • For ESFJs, their dominant is Extraverted Feeling, so their Copilot is Introverted Sensing – E Si Fe J
  • To determine the last two seats in your car – the back seat passengers – find the polar opposite of the front two passengers.
  • If your Driver is Extraverted Feeling, your 3 yr old or inferior function is Introverted Thinking.
  • If your copilot is Extraverted Sensing, your 10 yr old or tertiary function is Introverted Intuition.
  • You can do this for all the types and figure out the cognitive function stack for everyone
  • Now you know how to figure out your cognitive function stack by using your 4 letter code
  • For more information, search your type on our website and listen to the podcast where we discuss your cognitive function stack
  • This gets easier. Patterns emerge. It can seem difficult at first.
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    Download Episode Hereright click link and select “Save Link As…”

    In this episode, Joel and Antonia go into great detail around “The Car Model” and how to envision your personality cognitive function stack.

    In this podcast you’ll find:

    • Car Model article
    • Horizontal models assume everyone is on the same level
    • Vertical models – assumes there is a hierarchy
    • You can find ways to grow yourself using your own personality type
    • The car model is a metaphor to help us understand the cognitive function stack
    • In the Myers-Briggs system, which was built on Carl Jung’s work, there are 8 cognitive functions which are mental processes everyone uses to take in (perceive) info and evaluate (judge) that info.
    • 4 of these cognitive functions are judging or decision-making functions
    • 4 of these cognitive functions are perceiving or learning functions
    • The 4 judging functions are related to Thinking and Feeling
      • There are two styles of thinking – Introverted and Extraverted Thinking – Ti & Te
      • There are two styles of feeling processes – Introverted and Extraverted Feeling – Fi & Fe
    • Introverted = inward
    • Extraverted = outward
    • Thinking evaluative functions are more impersonal and data-oriented
    • Feeling evaluative functions are more personal and focused on the human component
    • The 4 judging functions are:
      • Introverted Thinking
      • Extraverted Thinking
      • Introverted Feeling
      • Extraverted Feeling
    • Judging = Evaluative/Decision-making
    • Is this good or bad? How will time, people, and resources be affected?
    • Judging = what should be happening?
    • The 4 perceiving functions are related to Sensing and Intuition
    • There are two styles of Sensing – Introverted and Extraverted
    • There are two styles of Intuition – Introverted and Extraverted
    • Perceiving processes inform the kinds of things that interest us.
    • Perceiving processes are about info gathering but only the info that captures us.
    • So 4 people may see the same situation in 4 completely different ways.
    • The blind men and the elephant
    • For Sensors, they prefer info that is reliable and verifiable by the body’s senses
    • For Intuitives, they prefer info that is more abstract and speculative.
    • Introverted Intuition vs Extraverted Intuition podcast
    • Introverted Sensing vs Extraverted Sensing podcast
    • Introverted Thinking vs Extraverted Thinking
    • Extraverted Feeling vs Introverted Feeling
    • That is the 8 cognitive functions
    • The car model helps you figure out which of these functions you prefer.
    • You will have a mixture of 4 of these functions – Introverted and Extraverted/Sensing and iNtuitive
    • All humans need access to the 4 components of their personality
    • They need a way to get outer world feedback – or Extravert
    • And everybody needs to get inner world feedback – or Introvert
    • We also need a way to take in info and determine the value of that info
    • Of those four cognitive functions, you still tend to feel drawn to two of them.
    • Figure out those two, and you will be able to figure out all four of your functions.
    • An ENTP’s dominant cognitive function (Driver) is Extraverted Intuition
    • Extraverted Intuition allows an ENTP to get outer world feedback (Extravert) and take in info (iNtuition)
    • But two pieces are missing because Ne can’t judge info and it doesn’t have any access to the ENTPs inner world.
    • So an ENTP has to balance it with an Introverted Judging function. For ENTPs that is Introverted Thinking.
    • ENFPs have the same dominant process as ENTPs (Ne), but ENFPs balance Extraverted iNtuition with Introverted Feeling.
    • EPs Judging process can never be Extraverted. They have to have a way to engage with their inner world.
    • If you are an Extravert who leads with an Extraverted Judging process, you must balance it with an Introverted Perceiving process. (EJs)
    • If you are an Introvert who leads with an Introverted Judging process, you must balance it out with an Extraverted Perceiving process. (IPs)
    • If you are an Introvert who leads with an Introverted Perceiving process, you must balance it out with an Extraverted Judging process. (IJs)
    • There is a reason why some cognitive functions are paired together.
    • They allow us to fill the criteria that we require to learn and evaluate.
    • Each cognitive function has a polar opposite.
    • We call these polarities
    • When you are paying attention to one side of the polarity, you aren’t paying attention to the other one.
    • So one becomes a strength, and the other becomes a weakness.
    • The cost of specialization.
    • Polarities help you determine which are your strengths and which are your weaknesses.
    • Perceiving polarities:
    • Extraverted Intuition vs. Introverted Sensing
    • Introverted Intuition vs. Extraverted Sensing
    • Judging polarities:
    • Extraverted Feeling vs. Introverted Thinking
    • Introverted feeling vs. Extraverted Thinking
    • Where there is one, there will always be the other.
    • Like a seesaw – both sides are always present
    • Your personality type is wired to favor a single cognitive function
    • We call it your dominant cognitive function
    • It is your go-to tool in your toolbox
    • To be a complete person, you must have another function that balances you out, which we call your auxiliary function.
    • Understanding your polarities is how you determine the rest of your stack
    • The polar opposite of your auxiliary is your tertiary function
    • The polar opposite of your dominant function is your inferior cognitive function
    • The car model is an easy metaphor for understanding how your cognitive function stack works
    • Our Dominant function is the Driver – the one you put in charge; your flow state; people love being in this process. It gives them energy.
    • If you are an Introvert, not all Introverted activities are going to appeal to your Introverted Driver.
    • It depends on what appeals to your Driver.
    • Energy recharge may not happen if you are doing introverted things that don’t appeal to your Driver.
    • Same with Extraverts.
    • Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi
    • Flow = you lose time while doing this activity because it is so enjoyable.
    • We tend to set up our lives to challenge our driver if we can’t do that we get bored or depressed.
    • If you ask someone to describe themselves, they will usually describe their Driver process.
    • Our driver is going to be either Introverted or Extraverted, and it is going to be either a Judging or Perceiving process
    • The driver is so dominant it is the lens thru which you engage in the world.
    • It is unconscious. We assume the rest of the world shows up in the same way.
    • The auxiliary function is the Copilot.
    • It will be the opposite attitude of the Driver.
    • If the driver is Extraverted, the Copilot will be Introverted
    • If the Driver is a Judging function, the Copilot will be a Perceiving function, which keeps us balanced
    • Exercise the Copilot to gain better control of it and become the best version of yourself
    • Imagine the Copilot as the navigator. It doesn’t control where the vehicle is going, but it helps navigate our path thru life
    • We tend to prefer the driver functions attitude.
    • If we are Extraverts, we prefer the outer world.
    • If we are Introverts, we prefer our inner world.
    • The Copilot forces us out of the dominant attitude, which can be uncomfortable.
    • We tend to marginalize our Copilot.
    • Make sure you are accessing the Copilot in a wide range of activities on a regular basis.
    • Don’t turn it into a one trick pony
    • Each of these functions is tethered to its opposite.
    • The Driver has a polar opposite, and so does the Copilot.
    • Behind the Copilot is our tertiary cognitive function, it has the development of a 10 yr old
    • Take the copilot and find the exact opposite cognitive function to determine what your tertiary function is.
    • If your Copilot is Introverted Thinking (Ti), your tertiary is Extraverted Feeling (Fe)
    • If your Copilot is Introverted Feeling (Fi) your tertiary is Extraverted Thinking (Te)
    • Our tertiary is at the development of a 10 yr old because it is not as developed as the Copilot or Driver.
    • It has a little bit of sophistication but not as much as an adult
    • You wouldn’t hand the wheel of a car to a 10 yr old.
    • We shouldn’t rely on this cognitive function for navigation or driving.
    • One of the reasons it only has the sophistication of a 10 yr old is because it is opposite the Copilot.
    • If the Copilot is Introverted, the 10 yr old will be Extraverted and vice versa
    • The 10 yr old is also of the same attitude as the Driver.
    • If your driver is introverted your 10 yr old will be Introverted.
    • If we haven’t set up our life to access our copilot on a regular basis, we will naturally give preference to our 10 yr old since it has the same attitude as our Driver
    • This is what creates the cognitive function loop – Driver/Tertiary take over the car
    • We are going to want to develop our 10 yr old because it is in the world we prefer.
    • Once you have fully developed the Copilot, you can start bringing in the 10 yr old as a balance to the Copilot.
    • The balance can be complicated.
    • Have you ever seen a family where the kids rule the family?
    • The same thing can happen with people’s personalities.
    • The adults can’t turn over control to the 10 yr old.
    • The 10 yr old needs to be a kid.
    • In a balanced situation, the Copilot is in control and supports the 10 yr old
    • Behind the Driver, is another cognitive function that has even less sophistication


    • Maria
      • Maria
      • February 1, 2020 at 10:50 am

      Riddle me this: How should an ENFP use this model to become more effective when the most effective way to apply this model is to let the 10yr old function (effectiveness) take a back seat and let mom and dad handle it? Lol it’s actually a riddle! I started this deep dive into learning how my mind works in order to become more effective! And now I find out I will become more effective by not trying to be effective? Did I just become a philosopher? This is a silly vicious cycle here!! Haha

    • Lauren Schuchmann
      • Lauren Schuchmann
      • October 8, 2018 at 1:46 am

      Hey! I’m in the same boat! Have been for months now. I’d love to hear a podcast comparing and contrasting the two.
      But maybe we could exchange thoughts on this topic? Maybe we could identify differences and similarities in how we think/feel and prehaps learn a little bit more about ourselves?

    • Jess Visher
      • Jess Visher
      • May 18, 2018 at 4:19 am

      Loved the recap! Question: where are my other four functions? I know there’s eight total but only four in the car. Are they in another car, or possibly the car?

    • Rieke
      • Rieke
      • May 17, 2018 at 8:00 am

      I have trouble figuring out if I am an INTJ or an INFJ, I do know that I have really strong Introverted Inutition.
      Te and Fi do work together a bit like Ti and Fe. I am confused and I really want to know which type I am so that I can start working on myself with confidense.

    • Karen
      • Karen
      • May 16, 2018 at 9:06 pm

      It is great how every time I listen to a podcast, there is something new there for me to learn.
      I thought I was very familiar with the car model, but experience with PH told me to listen anyway, and I really appreciated your explanation of developing my copilot beyond being a ‘one trick pony’. Thanks for sharing this stuff and bringing your depth of knowledge.

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